Joffre, Joseph Jacques Césaire, Marshal of France. (1852-1931). Born, Rivesaltes, département Pyrenees Orientales. Served in Formosa, 1895, Indochina and West Africa, and as an instructor at the French Artillery School. Served under Gallieni on Madagascar. Appointed a member of the Supreme War Council and director of the rear (1910) on Gallieni's recommendation. Appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1911 where he and his staff there devised 'Plan 17' which governed the first few weeks of the Great War.
As Chief of the General Staff he was responsible for direction for the French war effort for the first two and a half years of the conflict. Planned and executed the counterstroke at the Marne, as well as director of the offensive in Champagne and Artois (1915), his oversight of both Verdun and the Somme ultimately led the French Government to relieve him of command on 13 December 1916. He was created Marshal of France on 26 December, and in 1917 served as head of the French military mission to the United States.